We were making Hydrogen over 40 years ago with two Muffler Pipes one inside the other with little Clearance and plastic spacers, 12v Battery connected to each Pipe, a Bucket of tap Water with a upside-down Plate placed atop the bucket with a tiny air fitting in the centre, just another Hobby Project that actually worked.
Back to the Future: Worldwide there are several Hydrogen Manufacturing & Storage methods being rapidly developed, the Best System is what is dubbed as Green Hydrogen, meaning the Hydrogen is Generated & Stored within the same System, without the need to Deliver Grey Hydrogen compressed in Cylinders.
--- GREY Hydrogen ---
What is Grey Hydrogen ?
The Name Grey Hydrogen is given because the Hydrogen Manufactured, and then Delivered to the likes of a Service Station or storage Depot where the Hydrogen is then either Consumed or Delivered to the End user, like a Vehicle Charge Station or Converted into Heat for Consumption.
Grey Hydrogen simply incurs additional Costs to Deliver the Hydrogen to a site, where it will be Dispatched to the end user, in other words the Hydrogen being delivered, uses a vehicle & additional Labour. So our academics coin the phrase as Grey Hydrogen to be able classify the underlying costs incurred with the delivery of the Hydrogen.
--- GREEN Hydrogen ---
What is Green Hydrogen ?
Green Hydrogen is Hydrogen Manufactured & Dispatched to the End User at the Same Location as it is manufactured !
The best way to Manufacture Hydrogen is by utalising what would normally be Unused or Wasted Energy for any Generation source, like Solar, Wind or Aqua being the most common forms of Power that would be wasted.
Vehicles Filled from this Hydrogen EV Charge Station Manufacture Hydrogen on site, produces Green Hydrogen.
Also Retrofitted bolt-on Vehicle Hydrogen Systems manufacture Green Hydrogen, as they have an Electrolyser incorporated into the Vehicles system, where Water is topped-up into a tank and on-board Electrolyser Manufactures the Hydrogen, that in turn is used as a clean Fuel substitute to increase the Fuel efficiency of either Diesel or Petrol.
Recent University Tests confirm that using Hydrogen in a Vehicles Engine increases the Fuel efficiency of both Diesel & Petrol Engines between 35%~45%, as well as Cleaning out the Combustion chamber due to better combustion !
How is Hydrogen Stored ?
Commonly the Storing of Green Hydrogen is pressurised into material called Metal Hydrides (MHx) is the most Technologically relevant class of hydrogen storage materials, because the Hydrogen is only pressurised upto 40 bar in special Canesters, and are used in a range of applications including;
- Electrochemical Cycling
- Thermal Storage.
- Heat Pumps.
- Neutron moderation.
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology:
There are many Hydrogen Fuel Cells of varying size being manufactured & available world wide, a lot are used in Hobby kits.
With a growing market in Vehicle Retrofitted Hydrogen Fuel Kits that only supply addition Hydrogen to substitute the existing Fuel a Vehicle engine uses saving form 35~45% Fuelefficency.
--- Semi-Commercial Green Hydrogen ---
Australian Company GreenHy2 Pty Ltd is a publicly listed company on the ASX (HG2), is marketing & supporting the well established GKN Hydrogen Energy Storage Systems (HESS), that uses Metal Hydride as the Hydrogen Storage Medium that pressurise the Hydrogen up to 40bar.
GreenHy2 is partnered with GKN Hydrogen Technology in Australia, and the GKN Smallist unit is HY2MINI, where these acn be can be scaled up to Commercial Grid Utility applications, by supplying a full suit of Commercial Hydrogen systems.
GKN is a commercial Manufacturer of Hydrogen Energy Storage & Hydrogen Heat Technology, currently GNK's smallest system is HY2MIMI module that is fully self contained system that Manufactures & Stores from 165kWh~420kWh of Energy within the 3mt (10') shipping container easily relocated to any location.
The HY2Mini is more suited for large Energy Consumers or semi-commercial applications like Crypto Data-mining, that we are currently looking to install and test this module in a 125kWh/p Solar Farm near Sydney.
Download GNK HY2MINI 165~420kWh Hydrogen Generator Document;
--- LAVO in 2023 ---
Australian company LAVO website pouts the release of a Residential Hydrogen Energy Storage System (HESS) that uses Metal Hydride as the Hydrogen Storage Medium, that says can be scaled up to Commercial applications.
However, since 2021 LAVO have been stating the imminent release of what looks like a Great looking 40kWh Residential HESS Module said to cost approx. $26'000 ÷ 40kWh = $650kWh, that is very competitive, considering we Wholesale commercial 215kWh LiFePO4 Battery Tower modules for under $400kWh. The LAVO unit may be a Great investment as most Hydrogen units project a 30 year or 20'000 Cycle Life.
Unfortunately in July 2023 LAVO's web-site shows 17 people on staff, and there site is pretty well useless to directly Order or Contact anyone of authority if looking to Purchase there HESS modules, leaving us thinking there may be some underlying manufacturing, supply, distribution, installation &/or operational issues yet to be resolved !
LAVO say there module produces hydrogen from tap water with an electrolyser, a process powered by solar panels or any other from of Hi-amp power. The Hydrogen is stores in patented Metal Hydride canisters, and is converted back into AC power on demand via a fuel cell .
However, the LAVO Module dimensions is 168 x 124 x 40 cm and weighs approx. 200 kg, that's not bad considering 4x 10 kWh LiFePO4 Modules weigh 400kg – so the LAVO works out to be 200 kg lighter than four 10KwH LiFePO4 modules, and the Module has a 5kWh Battery interoperated into there Module.
The company says a bathtub of water "could power the house for 2 weeks". So, anywhere from 300~400 litres. That's about a $1 worth of water. The company recommends using drinkable Town water, as hard or dirty water will result in the Filters and Reverse Osmosis membrane needing to be replaced more often, that's another ongoing cost to consider.
The round trip efficiency of the LAVO unit is approximately 50% due to energy being lost in the process of electrolysis and at the fuel cell conversion.
This YouTube video by "Just Have a Think" tells the story of this revolutionary Technology, and is worth a listen, the good information starts at 5:30 seconds;
The LAVO web site leaves a lot to be desired & lacks any real information on when there System, and when they will be readily available to the public.
--- Nickel Hydrogen Battery ---
Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) Battery Technology was first used in Aerospace 30 years ago, and is still being used in the latest Aerospace projects like the International Space Station, Mars mission & powers the Mars Rover.
The NiH2 Batteries may be another solution for providing reliable Residential & Grid Scale Power, as they have a proven track record to Retain 86% or there Energy after 30'000 Cycles ENERVENUE is currently backing the Technology as the next step forward. Watch this Nickel Hydrogen Battery Video it explains it well;
--- VEHICLE Hydrogen Systems ---
This Australian company Hydrogen Fuel Systems is marketing Retrofitted Vehicle Hydrogen Fuel Systems, these appear to be able to increase the Vehicle Fuel Economy by up to from 34%~43%, they cost from $4'500~$5'500 per Kit depending on the Engine size.
This Vehicle Hydrogen System has been University Tested to provide an increase in Fuel Efficiency of between 32%~43%, for both Petrol & Diesel Engines.
Vehicle Hydrogen Kits only require three Fuel Cells that Manufacture & supply enough Hydrogen
There are fewer Commercial Hydrogen Fuel Cells, NUVERA is one of the leading Proton Exchange cells.
--- STATIONARY ENGINE Hydrogen Project ---
For people looking to make there own Hydrogen Generator, this is a Great Video;